Mutants are a species that feature in Marvel Comics.
Mutants or Homo Superior were a breed of humans born with extraordinary powers that generally manifest on puberty or high stress situations. Some believe mutants to be the next stage in the chain of human evolution, while others say they are simply a new branch of humanity. Mutants are the subject of social persecution, but they have defenders such as the X-Men, Magneto and his Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, Alpha Flight and X-Force.
Eons ago, the planet Earth was young when it was populated by the earliest ancestors of mankind. During this time, the Celestials had arrived on the world to conduct their experiments leading to the creation of the Deviants and the Eternals. Oneg the Prober was responsible for experimentation on a third crop of humans where he implanted a latent gene within them whereupon he allowed them to return to the surface. There were no apparent changes to their physiology unlike the Deviants or Eternals but the genetic potential for mutation was present among these humans that would manifest in the millennia afterwards that could surpass those of the other two experiments in the future. Upon completing their task, the Celestials departed allowing these early Mutants to develop among mankind. (What If? v1 #23)
In this time, a genetic predecessor species emerged known as Homo Killcrop that differed from Homo Superior in that they were born with their power. These Changelings or Replacement People were designed to pave the way for the rise of Homo Superior as they did not begin overnight. As a result of their nature, Killcrops were blamed for bad harvests by mankind and were killed 99 times out of a 100 in their infancy. In time, they came to be regarded in mythology of humanity that attributed them to the old legends of fairies or goblins that switched a human child with one of their own. (X-Factor v3 #11) Hundreds of years ago, Earth had Proto-Mutants that had cruder and less evolved version of the X-Gene. (X-Men v3 #31) In time, an ancient yet advanced civilization was founded by Mutants that predated all known civilizations. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #429) During the biblical era, several tribes of advanced humans that were Mutants dominated the planet. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #433) These tribes were referred to as the Neyaphem and the Cheyarafim who were mortal enemies of one another. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #429) Around this era, a red-skinned Mutant named Azazel came into power where he ruled much of Earth until he along with his closest followers were banished to another dimension by their enemies. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #433)
In 1859, the scientist Nathaniel Essex in Victorian era England had been conducting experiments in the nature of evolution and mutation leading to him discovering the existence of Mutants. He determined that these were an evolutionary breakthrough in mankind with him naming the genetic potential as the Essex Factor where he showcased his findings to the Royal Society of London. However, he was admonished for being a madman and rejected by the society who cast him out for dabbling in the creation of monsters. Despite being rejected, he continued his work in secret and recruited the Marauders gang to aid him. (Further Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix v1 #1)
During the rise of Nazi Germany, they began to hunt down Mutants in a time known as Lebengebrochennacht after Joseph Mengele theorised that the transplantation of Mutant organs and tissues into a human body being the key to creating the master race. This led to Project: Griffin where scientists surgically implanted the organs into human test subjects to see if their bodies could hold Mutant genetics. Most of the experiments failed but there was a success in one group consisting of children with these being known as Wenig Taktreisenders (Little Time Travelers). However, Hitler deemed these cross-bred children as a threat to the war effort and potentially could be devastating for the Reich if they went out of control. Thus, Mengele ordered the destruction of the subjects who were nearly completely eliminated when Allied forces arrived at the scene to liberate the camp. These children were freed leading to generations of hybrid Human-Mutant children spreading throughout Germany and East Europe with varying degrees of teleportation abilities. (Spider-Man and the Black Cat v1 #5)
In 1959, a Mutant by the name of the Armageddon Man lost control of his powers which devastated the town of Magic Mirror leaving it in ruin. This led to a government response who launched enough firepower to destroy a building with this only stunning the target. The target was then taken to a special detention facility as part of the Alamogordo Project who sought to study the subject and prevent the kind of damage from occurring in the future. (X-Force v1 #89)
Senator Robert Kelly later brought a proposed draft for legislation to control the activity of Mutants. The proposed bill was the Mutant Affairs Control Act 1984 with his fellow Senator Phillip believing the law amounted to slavery and looked to defeat it. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #181) In time, the United States Senate Committee on Mutant Affairs began to consider legislation in the wake of increased activity from Mutants. The proposed Mutant Registration Bill were to call for mandatory registration of all known Mutants making it necessary for them to report their whereabouts annually with it being taken to the President for consideration. (X-Factor v1 #1)
At some point, a team of Chinese Mutants established their own enclave that the called Tian where they remained undercover and undisturbed research as well as understand themselves better. (Astonishing X-Men v3 #27)
Vanisher was involved with a drug cartel to produce Designer Genes that was a drug that imparted superpowers for a short time before killing the user. The retrovirus was created by harvesting DNA from Mutants by tapping into the bone marrow. (Uncanny X-Men Annual v1 2001)
Within the U.S., there was an increased number of Mutants in the country along with a rising number of hate driven crimes against Mutants. As a result, the FBI organised the formation of a special division known as the Mutant Civil Rights Task Force (MCRTF) to handle tensions whilst proving that it was not an empty political gesture. (X-Factor v2 #1)
In the wake of M-Day, global genetic devastation faced Mutants as a result of the Chaos Wave generated from the Scarlet Witch. Her actions caused many Mutants around the world to be depowered and losing their abilities. It was determined that this was not a case of their powers being inhibited by the existence of the X-Gene being erased with there being no potential for even new Mutants to be born thus creating an endangered species bordering on extinction. (House of M The Day After v1 #1)
During the Secret Invasion, the Skrull race under Queen Veranke believed that the number of Mutants in the world was a threat to their eventual conquest of the planet. Thus, they sought to introduce measures to weaken them and end the danger posed by them. This included stoking anti-Mutant sentiment among humans who were already distrustful of Homo Superiors over fears of facing extinction. (New Avengers v1 #42)
Using the Cooperstown Massacre as a basis, Simon Trask led the Humanity Now! Coalition in bringing about a Mutant breeding act to a public referendum for people to vote in a ballot initiative in an effort to legislate births of Mutants. This led to Proposition X whereby tests was to be conducted on new born children and those that were X-Gene positive were to undergo mandatory chemical birth control procedures to prevent an increase in the Mutant population whilst stating that this was to ensure the survival and safety of ordinary humans. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #509)
In response to rising anti-Mutant sentiment along with Director Norman Osborn's H.A.M.M.E.R.'s activities, Scott Summers decided to evacuate the X-Men to an island mass he had his people rise from the fallen Asteroid M. This became a small independent island off U.S. soil near San Francisco Bay with this being referred to as Utopia that was to be a safe haven for Mutants. (Dark Avengers v1 #8)
Charles Xavier later sought to create a unified Mutant sovereign nation that was to be located on Krakoa that had its own language and culture. (House of X v1 #1)
Studies had shown that genetic Mutants had a very specific energy signature that were more powerful than other lifeforms. (X-Men: Deadly Genesis v1 #1)
Certain Mutants were known to succumb to a secondary mutation whereby they gained new abilities. (Uncanny X-Men v1 #412)
There was a classification system that divided Mutants into:
- Omega Level : Xavier believed Omega Level Mutant abilities had unlimited potential. (X-Men Forever v1 #3) These related to a single Mutant power that could not be surpassed in any measurable way. (House of X v1 #1)
Certain Mutants were designated as a Code X with these being personality profiles that had the chance of their Mutant gene X causing them to become mentally unstable. (X-Statix v1 #1)
Among their kind there were numerous variations such as:
- Homo Killcrop : (X-Factor v3 #11)
- Neo-Mutants : these were a type of latent Mutant whose abilities only activated in the presence of others with the X-Gene. (X-Men First Class Special v1 #1)
It was noted that shared bloodlines sometimes acted as a filter which produced immunities between close relations. Thus, among mutations that mothers were oftentimes exempt from their child's Mutant power with siblings sharing this immunity as well. (Domino v2 #4)
One specially bred form of Mutant were referred to as Chimeras that were produced from DNA of two separate X-genes thus creating a child that had the most predictable powersets of the source Mutants. In time, further generations of Chimeras allowed for the manifestation of multiple amalgamated X-genes that could include five different DNA sources. (Power of X v1 #1)
- Jamie Braddock : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Monarch whose power was reality manipulation on a quantum level. (House of X v1 #1)
- Robert Drake : male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Iceman whose power was negative temperature manipulation. (House of X v1 #1)
- Joshua Foley : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Elixir whose power was biokinesis. (House of X v1 #1)
- David Haller : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Legion whose power was power manifestation. (House of X v1 #1)
- Erik Lehnsherr : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Magneto whose power was magnetism. (House of X v1 #1)
- Kevin MacTaggert : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Proteus whose power was reality manipulation on a psionic level. (House of X v1 #1)
- Absalon Mercator : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Mister M whose power was matter manipulation. (House of X v1 #1)
- Ororo Munroe : a female Omega-level Mutant codenamed Storm whose power was weather manipulation. (House of X v1 #1)
- Bennet du Paris : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Exodus whose power was telekinesis. (House of X v1 #1)
- Quentin Quire : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Kid Omega whose power was telepathy. (House of X v1 #1)
- Franklin Richards: a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Powerhouse whose power was universal reality manipulation. (House of X v1 #1)
- Gabriel Summers : a male Omega-level Mutant codenamed Vulcan whose power was energy manipulation. (House of X v1 #1)
- Hope Summers : a female Omega-level Mutant codenamed Hope whose power was power manipulation. (House of v1 #1)
- Maddie : a young female Omega-level Mutant who was a teleporter. (Deadpool vs. Old Man Logan v1 #2)
- Matthew Malloy : a male Omega-level Mutant who was able to manipulate reality and noted to be incredibly powerful. (Uncanny X-Men v3 #27)
- Armageddon Man : (X-Force v1 #89)
- Paradigm : a male from Hong Kong with technokinetic abilities who was bonded with the Techno-Organic Virus from an alien organism but his abilities allowed him to take over the substance that encased his form in living circuitry that he could manipulate at will. (X-Force v1 #89)
- Persephone : a female Mutant who had the power to kill people and resurrect them as undead corpses that were extensions of her will with her heading a company called Soteira. (Return of Wolverine v1 #4)
- Mutants were created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby where they made their first appearance in X-Men v1 #1 (September 1963).
- Class Omega Mutants were first referenced by Nimrod where he designated Rachel Summers as one in Uncanny X-Men v1 #208 (1986).
- In X-Men v1 #141 (1981), an alternate future timeline was shown in Days of Future's Past that was designated as Earth-811 that was set in 2013. On this Earth, anti-Mutant attitudes arose after the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants assassinated Presidential candidate Senator Robert Kelly along with Charles Xavier and Moira MacTaggert in 1980. This led to the governments of the world passed the Mutant Control Act in 1988 leading to mass deployment of Sentinels that targeted and eliminated Mutants. The machines eventually began to take over and started cataloguing mankind in North America into three categories; H were baseline humans without the Mutant gene who were allowed to breed, A were anomalous that were normal humans but had the Mutant genetic potential thus they were not allowed to breed and M were Mutants that were pariahs in society who were hunted down and exterminated. This saw millions of Mutants killed with the X-Men largely eliminated though a small number of them survived to form an anti-Sentinel resistance. Special inhibitor collars were developed to neutralise their powers with the resistance working to change the timeline.
- In X-Factor v1 #67 (1991), an alternate future timeline was shown that was designated as Earth-4935 that was set between the 37th and 38th century. On this world, Apocalypse had risen to power and conquered the world where he instituted a survival of the fittest system. A newborn Nathan Summers after being infected with the Techno-Organic Virus was transported to this future to save him where he was raised by Clan Askani to be the warrior Cable.
- In Uncanny X-Men v1 #282 (1991), a further alternate future similar to Days of Futures Past was shown with this one being designated as Earth-1191. Sentinels rose to power in this timeline where Mutants were kept in concentration camps until the Summers Rebellion that led to Emancipation. In the aftermath, the Xavier's Security Enforcers were established to maintain the peace between humans and Mutants with Lucas Bishop born on this Earth.
- In Bishop the Last X-Man v1 (1999), an alternate future timeline was shown designated as Earth-9910 that was created by the time travelling Chronomancer. One group that arose were a species known as the Kith that were said to had been ancient savage unrelenting race and resided in aeries set in the mountain peaks. The young were grey-skinned giants larger than humans but by adulthood the grew horns and wings. By this point in the timeline, they were dwindling in number and dying when the last king had two sons with one imprisoning the other. He turned the Kith savage where they formed a tithe where they abducted sacrifices from a nearby town to feed on them. A band of roaming outcasts known as the X-Faces lived in this timeline that consisted of Scorch, Link, Jinx, Nom, and Michael where they were on the run from the Chronomancers forces.
- In New X-Men v1 #150 (2004), an alternate future timeline was shown in Here Comes Tomorrow with this reality being designated as Earth-15104. This showed a future set a century later where the sentient bacteria Sublime using Beast as a host body waged a genetic war against humans and Mutantkind as well as any other species in order to become the dominant race on the world.
- In House of M v1 #1 (2005), an alternate timeline was shown in a reality similarly known as House of M that was designated as Earth-58163. It was created by the actions of the Scarlet Witch whose powers affected reality as a whole creating a divergent world. On this Earth, a public attack by Sentinels in the 1970s was thwarted by Magneto who revealed an anti-Mutant conspiracy leading to him being awarded rule over the nation of Genosha. Another result was increased laws in the protection of Mutants leading to their rise and dominance whereupon they came to dominate the upper echelons of society relegating normal humans to a lower social status.
- In Ultimate Marvel, Mutants appeared in the alternate universe setting on the world designated as Earth-1610. In Ultimate Origins (2008), it was revealed that super-powered Mutants were the result of artificial experiments with them being created through genetic modification conducted by the Weapon X program in their laboratories in Alberta, Canada on October 1943. It was an attempt to produce a supersoldier with this inspired by the creation of Captain America. James Howlett was the first individual to go through this modification procedure but during a confrontation between Magneto and his parents the Mutant trigger was released into the worldwide environment causing the rise of Mutants among the general population. In Ultimate Comics Wolverine v1 (2013), it was shown that were was a program called Project: Mothervine that created a drug which was given to pregnant mothers that turned the children into Mutants which could be programmed and weaponised. It was used to create sleeper agents that when activated resulted in their mutation with this being done following exposure to the Mothervine drug.
- In Major X (2019), an alternate realm was shown to exist that was known as X-Istence. it was shown to had formed in the aftermath of that Earth's Mutant Wars where Mutants gathered at a sanctuary and under the direction of the X-Ential they formed a golden age of prosperity. However, something triggered that began to collapse this world leading Major X journeying to the mainstream Earth to find the cause of the destruction of his world.
In other media
- In X-Men: Pryde of the X-Men, Mutants were mentioned in the setting of the animated television series.
- In X-Men, Mutants featured heavily in the setting of the 1990 animated television series.
- In X-Men: Evolution, Mutants featured heavily in the setting of the animated television series.
- In Wolverine and the X-Men, Mutants featured heavily in the setting of the animated television series. The government was responsible for creating the Mutant Response Division that was tasked with the apprehension of Mutants.
- In Marvel Anime: X-Men, Mutants featured as part of the animated series setting. A condition that affected Mutants was Damon-Hall Syndrome which caused the development of secondary mutations leading to multiple personalities, uncontrolled physical mutation, and psychological instability.
- In Legion, Mutants were referred to in the live-action television series. It was claimed that a shadowy government agency known as Division 3 was responsible for keeping track of Mutants.
- In The Gifted, Mutants appeared heavily in the setting of the live-action television series. After the X-Men's disappearance, laws were put in place to apprehend Mutants with a federal agency established named Sentinel Services.
- In X2: X-Men United, Mutants featured in the live-action film that was part of the X-Men Trilogy. Pyro stated that the Mutant gene was passed down from male parents.
- In Logan, Mutants appeared and were referenced in the live-action film. In 2029, Mutants were held to had been killed off on Earth.
- In Deadpool 2, Mutants appeared in the setting of the live-action sequel film. Anti-Mutant sentiment was present among humans with a headmaster at the Essex House for Mutant Rehabilitation believing the Mutant children under his care to be sin evil creatures with him abusing them. The government controlled Department of Mutant Control (DMC) was shown to operate in cases of rogue renegade Mutants who had power damper collars placed on their necks upon arrest and transported to prison facilities such as the Icebox.
- In X-Men Legends, Mutants appeared in the setting of the video game with tensions rising between them and humanity. The Genetic Research and Security Organization (GRSO) was a government organization that actively targeted and hunted Mutants.
- In X-Men: Destiny, Mutants appeared in the setting of the video game with tensions between them and humans having risen due to events surrounding the death of Professor X. Both sides gathered at San Francisco with tensions being high as the Mutant Response Division sought to keep the peace whilst the Purifiers intended to instigate a purge and the X-Men looked for peace.
- X-Men v1:
- Uncanny X-Men v1:
- X-Factor v1:
- New Mutants v1:
- X-Force v1:
- Astonishing X-Men v1:
- Uncanny X-Men v2:
- Dark Avengers v1:
- Uncanny X-Force v1:
- Wolverine and the X-Men v1:
- Cable and the X-Force v1:
- Extraordinary X-Men v1:
- House of X v1: